Electromagnetic Flowmeters

Measuring electrically conductive fluids with electromagnetic flowmeters

Electromagnetic flowmeters are limited to measuring the volume flow rate of electrically conductive fluids. A reasonable measurement accuracy, around ±1.5%, is given, although the instrument is expensive both in terms of the initial purchase cost and also in running costs, mainly because of its electricity consumption. A further reason for its high cost is the need for careful calibration of each instrument individually during manufacture, as there is considerable variation in the properties of the magnetic materials used.


The instrument consists of a stainless steel cylindrical tube, fitted with an insulating liner, which carries the measured fluid. Typical lining materials used are neoprene, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyurethane. A magnetic field is created in the tube by placing mains-energized field coils either side of it, and the voltage induced in the fluid is measured by two electrodes inserted into opposite sides of the tube. The ends of these electrodes are usually flush with the inner surface of the cylinder. The electrodes are constructed from a material which is unaffected by most types of flowing fluid, such as stainless steel, platinum–iridium alloys, Hastelloy, titanium and tantalum. In the case of the rarer metals in this list, the electrodes account for a significant part of the total cost of the instrument.


The internal diameter of magnetic flowmeters is normally the same as that of the rest of the flow-carrying pipework in the system. Therefore, there is no obstruction to the fluid flow and consequently no pressure loss associated with measurement. Like other forms of flowmeter, the magnetic type requires a minimum length of straight pipework immediately prior to the point of flow measurement in order to guarantee the accuracy of measurement, although a length equal to five pipe diameters is usually sufficient.


Whilst the flowing fluid must be electrically conductive, the method is of use in many applications and is particularly useful for measuring the flow of slurries in which the liquid phase is electrically conductive. Corrosive fluids can be handled providing a suitable lining material is used. At the present time, magnetic flowmeters account for about 15% of new flowmeters sold and this total is slowly growing. One operational problem is that the insulating lining is subject to damage when abrasive fluids are being handled, and this can give the instrument a limited life.


Current developments in electromagnetic flowmeters are producing physically smaller instruments and employing better coil designs which reduce electricity consumption and make battery-powered versions feasible (these are now commercially - available). Also, whereas conventional electromagnetic flowmeters require a minimum fluid conductivity of 10 µmho/cm3, some new versions are becoming available which can cope with fluid conductivities as low as 1 µmho/cm3.


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